Acknowledgments

Co-authors
James Alexander, Emilia Anis, Bruce Aylward, Gregory Armstrong, Albert Barskey, Cara Burns, Victor Cáceres, Konstantin Chumakov, Stephen Cochi, Esther de Gourville, Ousmane Diop, Kathleen Gallagher, Howard Gary, Itamar Grotto, Neal Halsey, Lee Hampton, David Heymann, Tapani Hovi, Kun Hu, Hamid Jafari, Denise Johnson, Dominika Kalkowska, Olen Kew, Jong-Hoon Kim, Kasper Kisjes, Jennifer Linkins, Phil Minor, John Modlin, Steven Oberste, Mark Pallansch, Peter Patriarca, Hazhir Rahmandad, Nalinee Sangrujee, Lester Shulman, Philip Smith, Roland Sutter, Linda Venczel, Gregory Wallace, Steven Wassilak, Margie Watkins, Peter Wright

Other contributors
Global Polio Laboratory Network, Emmanual Abanida, Mohammed Ado, Yael Alfasy, Uttara Aggarwal, Lorraine Alexander, Katerina Alves, Abhijeet Anand, Larry Anderson, Jon Andrus, Ananda Bandyopadhyay, Sona Bari, Lawrence Barker, Scott Barrett, Hyam Bashour, Carrie Beam, Thomas Bell, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Christopher Black, Ivana Boko, Francois Bompart, Lee Bookman, Arnold Bosman, Carla Boudreau, Louis Boviero, Shanda Boyle, Brenton Burkholder, Anthony Burton, Fred Caillette, Joel Calmet, Jason Cecil, Claire Chauvin, Qi Chen, Paul Chenoweth, Susan Chu, Nesia Cohen, Marc Collette, Roger Cooke, James Cosgrove, Laurent Coudeville, Jagadish Desphande, Deepak Dhongde, Walter Dowdle, Philippe Duclos, John Edmunds, Ellie Ehrenfeld, Martin Eichner, Concepción Estívariz, Andrew Etsano, Hans Everts, Christine Fares, Christine Feig, Peter Figueroa, Paul Fine, William Foege, Jackie Fournier, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Michael Galway, Gian Gandhi, Edgar Garcia, Alex Gasasira, John Glasser, Yael Glazer, Jean-Marc Glinz, Tracey Goodman, Ruslan Gosinov, Ulla Griffiths, Steve Hadler, Shanelle Hall, Lee Hampton, Karen Hennessey, Sid Hess, Musa Hindiyeh, Brian Hirten, Raymond Hutubessy, Jane Iber, Alan Janssen, Julie Jenks, Jacob John, Todd Jordan, Samuel Katz, Bob Keegan, Nino Khetsuriani, James Koopman, Fran Kopel, Donald Kraybill, Dorota Kurowicka, Scott Lambert, Mauricio Landaverde, John Lange, Laura Laughlin, Tracy Lieu, Asta Lim, Robb Linkins, Marc Lipsitch, Benjamin Lopman, Sara Lowther, Patrick Lydon, Ondrej Mach, Chris Maher, Melinda Mailhot, Naile Malakmadze, Apoorva Mallya, Yossi Manor, Rebecca Martin, Javier Martin-Gonzalez, Eric Mast, Robert Matthews, Steve McLaughlin, Mark McKinlay, Ella Mendelson, Elizabeth Miller, Fred Modell, Vicki Modell, Linda Muller, Neal Nathanson, Van Hung Nguyen, Rosa Norman, Deo Nshimirimana, Patrick O’Connor, Hiromasa Okayasu, Jean Marie Okwo Bele, Paul Oostvogel, Walter Orenstein, Carol Pandak, Muhammed Pate, Christina Pedreira, Pelin Pekgun, Stanley Plotkin, Sarah Poser, Becky Prevots, Nelson Repenning, Lance Rodewald, Oliver Rosenbauer, Jennifer Rubin, Hardeep Sandhu, Anne Schuchat, Robert Scott, Tika Ram Sedai, John Sever, Jing Shaw, Meredith Shirey, Simarjit Singh, Bryon Skinner, Jean Smith, Robert Snyder, Danit Sofer, Thomas Sorensen, John Sterman, Jeanette St. Pierre, Peter Strebel, David Sugerman, Rudi Tangermann, Iris Tetford, Jean Gabriel Tezier, Kirk Thompson, Jos Vandelaer, Harrie van der Avoort, Anton van Loon, Rui Vaz, John Vertefeuille, Maya Vijayaraghavan, Michael Watson, Robert Weibel, Merav Weil, Jay Wenger, Bruce Weniger, Chris Wolff, Lara Wolfson, David Wood, Wenbo Xu, Michel Zaffran, Shuangli Zhu

Funding
Unrestricted gifts to Harvard Kids Risk Project
CDC: U50CCU300860, U01IP000029, U66IP000169, NVPON37(FY2005), 200-2010-M-33379, 200-2010-M-33679, 200-2010-M-35172, U66IP000519, 200-2015-M-61344, 200-2015-M-63078, U2RGH001913
WHO Polio Research Committee APW200470477, APW200526236
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: 4533-17492, 4533-18487, 4533-21031, 4533-23446, 4533-25298, OPP1129391